mudraya_ptica (mudraya_ptica) wrote,
mudraya_ptica
mudraya_ptica

Вопрос, заданный ув. zwezdniy_star в сообщении про Фортуну, был о Кайросе.
Я не забыла, просто отвлеклась)
Но поинтересовавшись персонажем, поняла, что опять ничего не поняла.

"Кайрос (др.-греч. Καιρός — «благоприятный момент») — древнегреческий бог счастливого мгновения.
У древних греков было два слова для времени: хронос — касается хронологической последовательности или времени прошедшего и все пожирающего (имеет количественный характер); кайрос — неуловимый миг удачи, который всегда наступает неожиданно, и поэтому им очень трудно воспользоваться (имеет качественный характер) <...> Этот бог был очень почитаем у древних греков. На рельефе он изображён с прядью волос на голове — только за этот локон и можно ухватить неуловимого крылатого Кайроса. В руках он обычно держит весы, что символизирует справедливость судьбы, посылающей удачу тем, кто это заслужил
." (вики-ру)
"In Greek mythology, Caerus or Kairos (Greek: Καιρός, Kairos) was the personification of opportunity, luck and favorable moments. He was shown with only one lock of hair. His Roman equivalent was Occasio or Tempus." (вики-а)
В Британском музее нет Caerus, есть 3 невнятных Kairos, 9 Occasio(из них 6 составляют printer's mark Andreas Cratander) и 64 Tempus, который ни разу ни Occasio, а обычное Время.


Titelprent voor Typus occasionis in quo receptae commoda, 1603, Theodoor Galle, 1603
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Occasio на  серии картинок из этой книжки изображено в женской одежде, без выраженных половых признаков, но с длинными волосами. В остальных случаях оно женского полу.
Волосы (или прядь волос) на голове Оказио как правило изображаются с "лицевой стороны", а затылок лысый, потому что ухватить Оказио за хвост можно только когда оно тебе навстречу, а коль мимо прошло, уже ни за что не ухватишь.
Небольшая загвоздка в том, что Оказио сливаетя с Фортуной и непонятно, то ли его придумали очень давно и оно так же давно трансформировалось, то ли его придумали совсем не давно и оно не успело стать популярным.
Так что тут будут в основном картинки про Фортуну из БМ, но в разных образах. Самое занятное, на мой взгляд, это древгрекоримские Фортуны-Тюхе-Исиды с рулевым веслом, ставшим крайне популярным через полторы тысячи лет).


Achillis Bocchii Bonon. symbolicarum quaestionum de Universo genere quas serio ludebat (Emblems of Achilles Bocchius.)
Plate 66. Alexander of Macedonia passing his decapitated head to winged Fortune; from a series of 150 engravings.
Print made by: Giulio Bonasone. 1555. Published in: Bologna
Bm
А самое чудесное - вот))



Картинок получилось много, я их даже пронумеровала, чтобы не сбиться со счета). Оставляла для предметов музейные описания, возможно, от лени и нежелания их как-то сокращать. Комментарии муз. работников там, где они, с моей точки зрения, интересны.

1

Silver statuette of Isis-Tyche. She holds the traditional attributes of Tyche (Fortune): a ship's rudder and a cornucopia.
Culture/period Roman. 1stC
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2

Marble seated figure of Cybele or Tyche wearing mural crown and holding short rod and remains of cornucopia(?); part of crown, drapery and feet restored. There is a ring of modern marble around the neck showing that the head and body are not joined. The head may therefore not belong with the body.
Culture/period Roman. 1 - 100. Excavated/Findspot: Athens (?)
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3

Bronze figure of winged Fortuna with a dolphin-handled steering-oar.
Culture/period Roman Imperial. 1stC-3rdC
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4

Marble statue of Fortuna with a rudder resting on a globe and a cornucopia.
150-200 (circa). Roma Vecchia, Villa of Sette Bassi (Excavated by Gavin Hamilton 1775/6 (?))
Curator's comments
Restored in the 18th century. <...>
Townley's description; ‘A Statue of Fortune or of Isis, three feet high; the right hand rests upon a rudder, under which is a globe, and in the left is a cornu:copia; the drapery is ample and covers the whole body. It was found 1775 five miles from St John’s gate of Rome on the road to Frascati’ (TY 12/3, library 2). In the fair copy (now in Towneley Hall) Townley added ‘amongst ruins now called Vecchia’.
The statue was actually found in 1774, since Hamilton mentioned its discovery at Roma Vecchia in a letter dated 28 October 1774 (TY 7/573). In confirming the findspot this letter dissolves the doubts expressed by Neudecker (208, with note 13), to whom this letter was not available. The statue was headless when found, but on 10 January 1775 Hamilton reported the discovery of a head for it (TY 7/576). <...> The head supplied by Hamilton, although ancient, appears to be alien: since the neck is wholly restored, there is no actual join between head and body; and since the hair is dressed in a bun at the back, it could not be connected with the lock of hair that survives on the drapery above the shoulders.
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5

Bronze figure of Isis-Tyche. Tyche wears attributes of the Egyptian deity Isis. She carries horns of plenty and a steering-oar.
Culture/period Roman. 2ndC. Excavated/Findspot: Cyprus
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6

The goddess Śrī
Standing goddess with a cornucopia, identified as Śirĭ (Śrī) on the inscribed base. She wears a high-girt tunic which falls abundantly over the shod feet from under a draped overgarment wound round the left shoulder and covering most of both legs. Drapery folds in relief outline the breasts and the overgarment and are otherwise shown as grooves which are sometimes paired. The lost left hand rested just above the knee; the raised right arm is almost wholly lost, although the damage on the shoulder suggests something held. The hair, under a polos or chignon, has two thick strands pulled back above the ears; the earrings are beaded and the collar is plain.
The goddess is turned slightly to her right and the full, round face has a slight asymmetry of feature. To her left a cornucopia below the elbow rests on the ground; it ends, like a rhyton, in a horned head below vine leaves, above which is a twisted motif with alternating plain band, undulating line and rectangles and at the top are fruits and hanging leaves. The damaged halo is plain.
(Стоящая богиня с рогом изобилия, идентифицированная как Siri (Śrī)<...> )
School/style Gandhara School. Culture/period Kushan. 2ndC-3rdC
Made in: Gandhara (Asia,South Asia,Pakistan,North West Frontier Province,Gandhara)
Found/Acquired: Pakistan
Curator's comments
In developed Hindu iconography Śrī-Lakṣmī, a goddess of fertility and good fortune, exhibits the aspersing elephants and lotus seen on an early type of goddess. Here the cornucopia connects the goddess with the Iranian Ardokhsho who also appears in a variant of the tutelary couple of similar function, replacing, or combining with, Hārītī. By reason of her comparable nature Ardokhsho is readily assimilable with Śrī.
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7

Figure. Kichijoten standing on lotus base; wearing robe of lady of Tang China; crowned; in one hand wishing jewel and other making gesture of liberality. Made of wood. Carved in 'ichiboku zukuri' style; some later restoration; replaced hands and feet.
11thC. Japan
Curator's comments
Śri (Kichijōten), goddess of good fortune, sometimes shown with Vaiśravaṇa (Bishamon) either as consort or sister, was particularly associated with good harvests. As here, she usually wears the elegant robes of a lady of Tang China, crowned, with in one hand the wishing jewel and with the other making the gesture of liberality. The figure is partly restored.
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Интересно, что подобное положение рук характерно для европейкой Риторики, о чем повествуется в книжке про Сиенский Дуомо).

8

The Wheel of Fortune and the Death below the Tree of Life; Fortuna stands at the left side, turning the wheel to which four figures are attached; Christ appears in the upper left corner and holds a chain which is linked to the wheel; in the lower centre lies a dead body in a tomb and to the right stands the Death in form of a skeleton who is about to shoot his arch into the tree of life; the tree at the right side grows out of a boat and contains a hierarchy of religious and secular dignitaries; several banderoles with text are allotted all over the scenery; with defects
Print made by Master of the Banderoles. School/style Netherlandish. 1450-1475 (c.)
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9

The Ship of Fortune; in the centre a semi-nude young man standing on a ship holding a sail; to left, in the stern, a woman.
Producer name Print made by: Anonymous. c.1460-70. School/style Florentine
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10

Fortune, a female nude on a globe in the sea with a port behind
Print made by Nicoletto da Modena. School/style Italian. 1500-1510
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11

Figure of Fortuna standing on a dolphin, holding a sail. White glaze (presumably, tin); coloured blue and green.
Made by: Giovanni della Robbia. Florence. 1500-1510 (circa)
Curator's comments
From Thornton & Wilson 2009: 'The subject of WB.65 was identified in the first Waddesdon catalogue as the Nereid Amphitrite, goddess of the sea and wife of the sea god Neptune. The sail indicates, however, that she is more likely to be the goddess Fortuna, an identifiaction confirmed by the existence of two anonymous 15th-century Florentine prints and another by Nicoletto Rosex da Modena, showing Fortuna standing upon a dolphin. This iconography of Fortuna in a maritime context may be related to Horace's description of the goddess as a "mistress of winds and waves" ("Odes", I.XXXV) and appears to have been particularly prevalent in Florence, where leading merchants' fortunes often depended on the safe passage of their ships. The Rucellai family's arms, as placed on the façade of the church of S. Maria Novella and on their palace, were even surmounted by a figure of Fortune standing upon a ship.
Read attributed WB.65 to the Della Robbia workshop, but it was not recorded by Marquand and has not been discussed elsewhere in the Della Robbia literature. However, it appears to date from the early 16th century and to be a characteristic sculptural work of Giovanni della Robbia, the second of the five sons of Andrea della Robbia who joined their father in the family workshop. First named in documents in 1487, from around 1500 Giovanni began gradually to displace his father as the dominant figure in the workshop. <...>
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12

Enea Silvio Piccolomini dreams that he has come into the Kingdom of Dame Fortune; interior at centre of a three-storey building with a female figure enthroned at centre and various male figures gathered at left and r; illustration to Nicolaus von Wyler, 'Transzlatzion oder tütschungen etlicher bücher Enee silvij, Pogij, Felicis hemerlin', Strasbourg: Prüss, 1510.
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13

Title-page with four woodcuts, two copies of engravings, at the bottom a late impression of a reserved copy, showing the Virgin and Child on the crescent, and on the left a reversed copy of the Large Fortune, on the right a wild man, and on the top a decorative border with a goose in the middle, and in the centre the title of the book in letterpress, on the verso the same woodcut copy of the Virgin and letterpress. 1495 (Fortune) and 1514 (Virgin)
After Albrecht Dürer
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14

Fortune, a nude woman holding a mirror and standing on a winged globe which sails over water before an island with a castle.
Print made by: Master of 1515. School/style Italian. 1510-1520
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15

Printer's mark of Andreas Cratander; on recto, with Fortune with winged feet standing on a globe in a landscape, her face obscured by her long hair; on verso the mark of Ludwig Hornken with a griffin and a lion supporting a shield; illustrations to 'Auli Gellii Noctium Atticarum', Basel:Cratander, 1519.
Printed by Andreas Cratander. Print made by Hans Franck. Published by Ludwig Hornken. School/style German. 1519
Printed in Basel. Published in Cologne
The mark lettered on banderoles: 'O FELIX COLONIA/ LODOVICO HORNKEN'
Lettered with colophon (trimmed): 'BASILEAE, AUPID ANDREAM CARTANDRUM MENSE SEPTEMBRI. ANNO M.D.XIX./ SUMPTU LODOVICI HORNKEN BIBLIOPOLAE.'
Curator's comments
Unclear if the mark of Hornken was also designed by Franck.
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15а - обратная сторона, занятная.

Printer's mark of Andreas Cratande. on verso the mark of Ludwig Hornken with a griffin and a lion supporting a shield (Там же)

16

Het rad van fortuin; de vijf standen, Albrecht Dürer (attributed to), 1521 - 1528
Rm

17

Printer's mark of Andreas Cratander; a shield with Occasio, standing on a globe; first used in Joannes Oeclampadius, In Iesaiam Prophetam Hypomnematon ..., Basel, A. Cratander, 1525 (4°); taken from an unidentified edition.
Published by Andreas Cratander. Block cut by Jacob Faber. Print made by Hans Holbein the Younger. 1525
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18

Achillis Bocchii Bonon. symbolicarum quaestionum de Universo genere quas serio ludebat (Emblems of Achilles Bocchius.)
Plate 23. Fortune and Abundance bearing the arms of France; from a series of 150 engravings.
Print made by: Giulio Bonasone. 1555. Published in: Bologna
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19

Achillis Bocchii Bonon. symbolicarum quaestionum de Universo genere quas serio ludebat (Emblems of Achilles Bocchius.)
Plate 71 The wheel of fortune with clothed figure lying on it, set before a landscape; from a series of 150 engravings.
Print made by: Giulio Bonasone. 1555. Published in: Bologna
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20

A winged standing female figure (Victory or Fortune?) facing left holding a sphere, she has dressed hair and stands within a niche
Print made by: Giorgio Ghisi, 1560-1570
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21

Fortune standing on a dolphin; whole-length nude female figure holding a sail; various buildings on the shore of the lake at left.
Print made by Andreas Summer. School/style German. 1568
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22

Naked winged figure of Time in the centre turning the wheel of fortune upon which rides a Turk, in lower right is a female personifiation of Religion and at left Death holds a sickle, below are many dead Turkish and European soldiers.
Print made by Martin Rota. School/style Italian. 1572
Inscriptions
Lettered throughout print, on ledge of coffin 'Constantinus primus imperator 1572' followed by three lines of text 'Clarisime olim urbes ... / In Arg lib', bottom right 'Martinus Rota Sibinicensis inve.'
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23

Fortune, printer's mark of Nicolaus Basse; nude female figure turned to right standing on a wheel, her feet winged, holding a piece of cloth in her left hand and a knife in the right. Boats sailing and a sunset in the background. Set in an ornamental border with female personifications of Justice and Religion (?) and two putti in the lower corners. From Sarcerius, 'Geistlicher Herbarius', Frankfurt: Basse & Feyerabend, 1573.
Print made by Jost Amman. Printed by: Nicolaus Basse. Published by: Sigmund Feierabend. Frankfurt am Main, 1573
Inscribed in the oval frame: 'FRONTE CAPILLATA EST POST HAEC OCCASIO CALVA'.
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24

Allegory of Fortune; whole-length female figure in profile to left, holding a covered goblet; a torch burning at right.
Attributed to: Adam Elsheimer. School/style German. 1597 (circa)
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25

Fortune, holding a sail, borne by a dolphin with a lion at left
Drawn by: Anonymous. School/style North Italian. 16thC
Curator's comments
Popham in Fenwick catalogue: 'North Italian or possibly by some Flemish artist in Italy like Sustris'.
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26

Spotprent waarin Spinola wordt vergeleken met de spinnende Hercules, 1607, anonymous, 1607
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27

Fortune, tous jours Fortune
Fortune, always Fortune: young man standing on the left and catching personification of Fortune by the foot; on the right, personification of time; all characters are surrounding a drapery left blank
Print made by Louis Elle. Published by Pierre Ferdinand. After Louis Testelin. 1627-1665
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28

Volvenda Dies.
A satire on England at the Restoration; a Janus-headed near-naked man, holding two keys in his right hand, stands on a celestial globe on the left of which, as if on the wheel of fortune, a bishop, a lawyer and a soldier ascend holding hands and on the right similar figures descend; the descending soldier is in armour. On the left, at the top, the sun shining above a classical building, and below, crowns, sceptres and orbs lying on the ground; on the right, the sun obscured by clouds and on the ground a pile of military paraphernalia; lettered below with the title, upside down.
Print made by: John Chantry (?). 1663
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29

Allegorical composition showing King Louis the Pious of France, in classical armour, being led to the left by a winged woman crowned with a sun and pointnig to a statue of a woman holding fruits; at the King feet is a nude figure (Occasio?) bald except for a single lock fleeting in the wind, sitting on a wheel, brandishing a sword; illustration from Giovanni Palazzi's 'Aquila inter lilia' (Venice: Herz, 1671), page 97
Print made by Anonymous. School/style Italian. 1671 (circa)
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30

Allegorical composition showing King Louis IV of France, in classical armour, wrestling with a female figure sitting on the wheel of Fortune and throwing crowns and coins on the floor; the woman pushes Louis away with her foot; the King's crown falls to the ground; two figures recline in the lower left corner; in the background, a battle occurs; illustration from Giovanni Palazzi's 'Aquila inter lilia' (Venice: Herz, 1671)
Print made by Anonymous. School/style Italian. 1671 (circa)
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31

Foglietto che non falla. Tempo guerrier e Fortuna che gira
Satire on the war: Time sharpens a sword on a wheel of the four continents which is turned by Fortune.
Print made by: Giuseppe Maria Mitelli. 1692
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32

A seated Hercules is flanked on his left by Fortune who stands on a globe, and by a satyr on his right, with on verso an ink sketch representing a female head
After Giulio Romano (?). School/style Italian, French. 1600-1700 (c.)
Curator's comments
The print, which according to Massari is the work of an anonymous French artist from the 17th century (possibly from the circle of Girard Audran), is purportedly after Giulio Romano, similar to a panel in the Sala dei Stucchi at the Palazzo del Te.
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33

Title (object) Que la Fortune est bizarre et ennemie de la Vertu, de neslever le merite au plus haut degré de la gloire, que par mespris et avec des dain
Title (series) Recueil d'estampes d'après les tableaux des peintres les plus célèbres d'Italie, des Pays-Bas et de France Galerie d'Aguilles
Plate 9: allegorical scene representing a nude female figure sitting on the left, and a bearded man in armour holding a sceptre in his left hand and a book in the other.
Print made by Jacques Coelemans. After Paolo Veronese. School/style French, Flemish. 1690-1709 (c.)
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34

Twee standbeelden, Bernard Picart, 1683 - 1733
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35

Vader Tijd met het Rad van Fortuin, Andries van Buysen (Sr.), 1723
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36

Drawing. Note.(obverse) Sketch of Fortuna with sheep and factories in background. Design printed in black.
19thC. Issued in: Leeds (British Isles,England,West Yorkshire,The City of Leeds Metropolitan Borough,Leeds (West Yorkshire))
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Tags: искусство, музей, символы, цивилизация
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  • 19 comments

  • про монастыри

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